Lab 3

Jayce Hovis­         9-20-17
Objectives:
My objective is to learn more about the OSI Model, TCP/IP model, and understand Computer Networks, as well as what layer they are located in.
Equipment list:
– A device in layer 1, layer 2, and layer 3
– A Table of the OSI Model
– To be on a computer (For anybody using a mobile device)
Layer 1, 2, 3
The Devices
Notes and Observations:
We ended up with teams in this lab, however it is not necessary.
We basically used a paper and answered a lot of questions.
There were prompts to use specific key commands in which I will post here.
Click start, run, then type “cmd” and right-click the cmd icon, select “run as administrator”. (On Mac use Applications, Utilities, and then Terminal) You should see a window with a DOS style screen. Let’s find out what your IP address is by typing
ipconfig /all (ifconfig on Mac).
*Please not that spaces are important.
Use the ping command to see how long it takes to send a message to far away place in america and receive a reply. In the command prompt type, ping (insert.websiteurl.here) and hit return. How long did it take?
**It should display in ms or Milliseconds, which is really fast.
~If it doesn’t do through just try another site.
At the command prompt type arp –d *. This command clears your ARP table. Type arp –a to verify there are currently no entries in the arp table. Now ping your neighbor’s computer by typing ping and their IP address. Did you get a reply?
*If not, be sure the windows firewall is turned off!
Retype arp –a and record any changes to the ARP table.

 

Questions:
1. If we already had the TCP/IP model, why was the more complicated OSI model created?

-Wide Variety and doesn’t rely on a specific computer.

2. What does the abbreviation OSI stand for? Who originated it? When?
-Open Systems interconnection, ISO, and in 1984.
3. What is the purpose of a 1) router, 2) switch, 3) hub?
  1. Routers: To connect multiple networks and forward packets destined either for its own networks or other networks.
  2. Switches: A constituent of computer network that connects two network slices and/or two network devices together.
  3. Hubs: A common connection point for devices in a network.
4. How are the devices similar?
-They are all devices in which we can physically touch.
5. How are they different?
-They all do different things and are in different layers.
6. What is the highest layer of operation for the following network devices: switch, hub, NIC, router, cable media, wireless access point, patch panel, repeater, and bridge?
  1. Hub, NIC, Cable Media, patch panels, and repeaters.
  2. Switch, NIC, Wireless access point, and bridges.
  3. Routers
7. What is another name for the physical address (assigned at the factory)?
-The MAC Address
8. How many bits does this physical address require?
-48 bits
When two machines attempt to transmit simultaneously on the same media segment, both messages become garbled and unintelligible.
9. What is this condition called?
-Collision
10. What is the PDU (protocol data unit) of layer 2?
-Frame
11. What do the initials ARP stand for & what does it do?
-Address Resolution Protocol, and is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP address) to a physical machine address that is recognized in the local network.
12. ARP ends in a “P” so what does that often signify?
-Protocol
13. Why is ping useful?
-Use ping whenever you need to verify that a host computer can connect to the TCP/IP network and network resources.
14. What is the process or system that converts text-based domain names into numeric IP addresses?
DNS or Domain Name System
15. What protocol is used to translate a known layer 3 address into an unknown layer 2 address?
-Gateway or known as a router
16. Why is it required?
-It helps choose a path, without it it would be chaos.
17. What are these layer 3 gateway devices called?
-Switches
18. What is the de-facto standard for these logical/software/network addresses used today?
-Standard Ethernet and IP Protocol Use
19. How many bits do they require?
-32 bit
Questions That Cannot Be Answered Online:
Due to Privacy/Copyright Reasons I have left you some questions in which I cannot answer.
  1. What is your IP (IPv4) address?
  2. What is your MAC (physical) address?
  3. Who was the manufacturer according to the MAC? (Look it up here: http://standards-oui.ieee.org/oui.txt)
  4. MAC and IP address on mobile device? (If you don’t have one accessible, please skip.)
  5. Who manufactured the network interface chip on your mobile device? (If you don’t have one accessible, please skip.)
  6. What is your friend’s MAC (physical) address?
  7. What happens when you type the IP address of a web server into the address bar of your browser?
  8. Connect two computers to a switch using Ethernet cables. What information is provided in the switch MAC address table?
  9. Does the MAC address shown in the table match the MAC address of the computer that is connected?
Conclusions:
This is a really good lab and how it explains the OSI model, MAC addresses, IP addresses, and what they mean to who they’re made from. it’s a lot of writing, but it gets the job done.

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